Our courses are self-paced and online The Fundamentals of Crowd Safety course is a Level 3 qualification (IIRSM and Highfield). On this course, we cover the basics of the crowd science and risk analysis tools with their application for planning and managing places of public assembly.
Prof. Dr G. Keith Still, has developed and delivered training materials around the world for over 30 years. Dr. Still and the National Center for Spectator Sports Safety and Security (NCS4) partnered in March 2021 to bring this body of work to the United States. The partnership aims to address capability gaps in crowd behaviour sciences in public assembly areas, sports and entertainment venues, and communities. The primary goal is to educate practitioners on the essential elements of crowd safety and risk analysis. In this course, we cover the core crowd science and risk analysis tools with their application for planning and managing places of public assembly.
Aims and objectives The aim of this course is to provide an insight into the causes (and prevention) of crowd related disasters. The objective of this course is to provide the user with the relevant tools and methods to assess crowd safety and crowd risk analysis in places of public assembly. To pass this course, the learner must complete the assessment quiz at the end of the course. You need to score more than 80% to pass. The course uses the Moodle platform and is self-paced. There is a time limit of 60 days from enrolment to completion.
Course modules 1. Moodle for the first time user If you have not used a VLE (Virtual Learning Environment) before, it can look daunting. However, once you get used to the basic navigation, it is not that complicated to master. In this model, we cover the navigation system and system menus.
2. Introduction and overview In this section, we introduce the learner to the principles of risk analysis related to crowded spaces. We cover the causes of accidents and incidents and outline the DIM-ICE model for understanding the dynamics of crowds risks.
Lesson Topics 1 Introduction 2 Understanding the underlying causality of crowd accidents and incidents 3 History of accidents and incidents 4 Understanding your perceptions/perspective 5 Media reporting and risks 6 Understanding crowd dynamics 7 The DIM-ICE risk analysis model and its application
3. Crowd dynamics In this module, we outline the principles of crowd dynamics. We focus on risks associated with packing density (static crowds) and moving space requirements (dynamic crowds) for crowd safety. We also outline the formation of “shock waves” in the crowd and how they develop. The module includes reviews of the basics types of queueing systems design.
Lesson Topics 1 Static crowd density 2 Moving crowd density 3 Crowd shockwaves 4 Crowd collapse 5 The dynamics of crowd collapse 6 Queuing systems 7 Flowing systems
4. Crowd modelling In this course module, we illustrate the issues of transport hubs and their proximity to an event site. One of the issues for transport at major events is how they influence crowd behaviour. We highlight this problem with a worked example.
Lesson Topics 1 Understand how to represent crowd flow on a site model 2 Understand the risks associated with a high density crowded space 3 Understand how to influence egress behaviour
5. RAMP analysis We developed a technique called "RAMP Analysis" to define the Crowd dynamics for places of public assembly. RAMP analysis defines the Routes, the Areas, the Movement (over time) and the crowd Profile (People) in and around the event. We outline the principles and applications of RAMP analysis using a case study from a real-time crowd counting example.
Lesson Topics 1 Understanding the process of approximations 2 Defining complex spaces using approximations 3 Routes, Areas, Movement and Profile/People definitions 4 Establishing the arrival profile 5 Establishing crowd profiles 6 Using RAMP analysis for planning and managing crowds 7 How this was used to evaluate mass gatherings (case study)
6. Crowd counting In this module, we outline the methods of evaluating the number of people at events. Crowd counting is an essential element of planning and managing crowds in places of public assembly and major events.
Lesson Topics 1 Measuring the masses 2 Using density as a crowd count 3 Using the flow rate as a crowd count 4 The issues relating to overestimating crowd size
7. Control room information In this module, we show how models can be integrated into the control room monitoring systems. We illustrate the principles of attention, and why it is essential to understand the way our minds focus on information.
Lesson Topics 1 Attention and awareness (TED Talk) 2 Keeping information in the right place 3 Control room reference graphics
8. Queueing systems Queueing is an important element of every event. In this module, we explore how queues form and how crowds react in queueing systems. We outline the balance between safety (screening/searching) and security coupled with the crowd risks when queueing regimes are changed. We cover the principles of queueing behaviour, psychology and dynamics. We introduce the delegates to the general queueing model formula for determining queue build up over time.
Lesson Topics 1 Queueing systems and queue behaviour 2 Balancing safety and security for events/venues/sites 3 Ingress (arrival rates) 4 Egress queuing systems 5 Site design for queueing systems 6 Using the queueing models
9. Crowd risk analysis In this module, we outline the difference between public and professional perceptions of risk. We introduce the concepts of risk and congestion mapping for places of public assembly.
Lesson Topics 1 How the public perceives risks 2 How a professional perceives risk 3 Key elements in risk awareness 4 Key elements of incident investigation 5 Using the risk mapping for event planning/management
10. Event egress analysis In this module, we outline an event egress problem to introduce the principles of modelling site dimensions, and as a guided application of risk management.
Lesson Topics 1 How to read maps/plans and apply data to a case study 2 How to model a site 3 How to communicate the risks 4 How to address key safety issues on a case study
11. Strategic and tactical analysis Strategic and tactical analysis for major events is a planning exercise. In this module, we outline a versatile method for assessing and analysing decisions that may impact crowd safety. We demonstrate the use of matrix analysis for crowd communication, professional communication, risk analysis related to time and location and how to build a crowd decision support analysis system.
Lesson Topics 1 Examples of various decision support analysis techniques 2 Crowd communication 3 Risk v location v time 4 Time v density v flow v risk
12. Emergency situations In this module, we outline the issues of emergencies in places of public assembly. We explore how large crowds react to emergency situations with two case examples. The principles of planning a large area evacuation are outlined along with strategic options and an example of human behaviour during emergency situations.
Lesson Topics 1 Anticipate/Prevent, Detect, Respond and Recover 2 The recovery cycle 3 Communication with the Crowd 4 Modelling major site evacuation plans 5 Modelling evacuation 6 Understanding human behaviour in an emergency 7 Egress strategies and decision support analysis
13. Course summary In this lecture, we summarise the course modules. We hope you have enjoyed listening to the lecture (s), and taking part in exercises.
Lesson Topics 1 The DIM-ICE risk model 2 Crowd dynamics and crowd risks (Static, Dynamic and Contingency) 3 Crowd Modelling 4 RAMP Analysis 5 Crowd Counting 6 Control Room Information 7 Queueing systems 8 Crowd Risk Analysis 9 Event egress analysis 10 Strategic and Tactical Analysis 11 Emergency Situations
14. Assessments and certificates To pass this course you must complete the online multiple-choice quiz. You have 1 hour to complete 15 multiple choice questions and score above 80% to pass. You have three attempts to pass the course.